Peter Drucker, one of the first managerial thinkers, introduced MBO or Management by Objectives. This eventually paved the way for the birth of the Objectives and Key Results (OKR) management philosophy. Andy Grove, known as the “Father of OKRs”, introduced the approach to Intel during the 1970s. This was further popularized by John Doer by introducing OKRs at Google in 1999.
Today, successful organizations are now using OKRs. Objectives and Key Results is an efficient way to track company and team goals and measure their progress. It helps every organization’s success by cutting out unimportant goals and focusing on what truly is important within the organization.
Objectives and Key Results (OKR) has been seen as a way to communicate so that there is clarity of purpose. It is also a tool for motivating and aligning people to work together to achieve Operational Excellence. It increases transparency, accountability, and empowerment.
What is OKR?
OKR or Objectives and Key Results is a popular Management Strategy for goal setting within organizations. The goal of OKR is to define how to achieve objectives through concrete, specific, and measurable actions.
The OKR framework is structured with two framework components: the Objectives and Key Results. This is to connect company, team, and personal goals to measurable results and direct all towards one unified direction
- Objectives. The Objectives consist of a list of 3-5 high-level objectives. This is supported by initiatives—plans and activities focused on achieving the objective and moving forward the key results. Setting objectives requires a lot of thought as it goes beyond making money. In fact, it must follow defined characteristics and undertaken in a well-planned approach. This is to ensure that the objectives formulated are well-defined, focused, and achievable.
- Key Results. Key Results add metrics to objectives. These are measured on a 0-100% scale or 0 to 1.0. Under each objective are 3 to 5 measurable Key Results. It measures how far from the objective your team is. It will give them a clear direction on what to do and how to do it.
Developing the right OKR requires being able to properly define your Objectives and Key Results. One way of doing this is by using the SMART goal setting model.
A Look at the SMART Model
The SMART Model ensures that organizations get to effectively develop the right OKR. The SMART Model is the easiest way to set Key Results. Organizations just need to follow the SMART goal guidelines. Knowing what to do, as well as knowing not what to do, on an OKR journey to minimize problems and mistakes.
The use of OKR requires cultural change and change itself is difficult. But with the use of the SMART goal guidelines, organizations can get the hang of it and can be effective in its OKR journey.
Let us take a look at OKR examples that provides a clear application of the SMART model.
The first example is the use of Sales OKR. Set Objective is to increase Q2 recurring revenues. Key Results are increased average subscription size by $500 per month ($0-$1500). The second Key Result is to increase the share of monthly subscription vs. one-time contracts sold to 85% (50%-85%).
Another example is the Human Resource OKR. Set Objective is to improve internal employee engagement. Its first Key Result is conduct a monthly “Fun Friday” all-hands meetings with an external motivational speaker (0-3 meetings).
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Enterprises invest in Analytics to improve Decision Making and outcomes across the business. This is from Product Strategy and Innovation to Supply Chain Management, Customer Experience, and Risk Management. Yet, many executives are not yet seeing the results of their Analytics initiatives and investments.
Every organization putting on investment in Analytics has experienced several stumbling blocks. This differentiates the leaders from the laggards. Analytics-driven Organizations have clearly established processes, practices, and organizational conditions to achieve Operational Excellence. Their commitment to Analytics is creating a major payoff from their investments and a competitive edge.
What It Takes to Be Analytics-driven
The Harvard Business Review Analytic Services conducted a survey of 744 business executives around the world and across a variety of industries. Their focus was on the performance gap between companies that have struggled to get a return on their Analytics investment and those that have effectively leveraged their investment.
The survey showed that Analytics-driven Organizations get sufficient return on investment in Analytics. In fact, they have been highly successful in gaining a return on Analytics investment. This is gainfully achieved as organizations use Analytics consistently in strategic decision making. Executives of Analytics-driven Organizations rely on Analytics insights when it contradicted their gut feel.
Essentially, Analytics-driven Organizations have reduced costs and risks, increased Productivity, Revenue, and Innovation, and have successfully executed their Strategy. Yet, in evolving the organization’s Analytics approach, there can be 4 core obstacles that can affect their drive to getting a greater return on investment in Analytics.
The Core Obstacles to Finding Return on Analytics Investment
Let’s briefly take a look at the first 2 obstacles:
- Communication and Decision-making Integration. The lack of Communication and Decision-making Integration limits the integration of Analytics into workflows and decision processes do not reach decision-makers. As a result of these core obstacles, the use of Analytics is limited in specific areas.
- Skills to Interpret and Apply Analytics. A second core obstacle is the inadequate skills of business staff to interpret and use Analytics. In fact, the survey showed that only one-quarter of frontline employees use Analytics with only 7% using Analytics regularly.
The other two core obstacles are siloed and fragmented Analytics and time delay. These are two equally important core obstacles that can hinder the use of Analytics to maximize return on investment. Further, the 4 core obstacles are barriers to analytic success.
Are You Ready to Be an Analytics Leader?
Leaders use Analytics consistently in decision making. In fact, based on the survey, 83% of executives use it in business planning and forecasting. On the other hand, laggards only use it 67% of the time. Even in various aspects of the organization such as Marketing, Operations, Strategy Development, Sales, Supply Chain, Pricing and Revenue Management, and Information Technology, laggards use Analytics only half the time compared to Analytics Leaders.
Analytics Leaders always ensure that they establish the processes and organizational conditions to allow them to successfully deploy Analytics. In fact, to increase return on Analytics, organizations must undertake the use of four interrelated initiatives that will drive greater return on investment Analytics. These are four initiatives essential to building an Analytics-driven Organization.
One is building an organizational culture around Analytics. To achieve this the organization must have clear, strategic, and operational objectives that are set for Analytics. Second is deploying Analytics throughout all core functions of the business.
Starting with an Analytics-driven Culture can greatly facilitate cross-functional deployment of Analytics.
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When things go wrong on a grand scale, often we direct our attention to the role of the Board. Debate exudes and often gets heated up and intensifies. This often happens when the Board spends more time looking in the rearview mirror and not enough scanning the road ahead. When this happens, governance suffers.
Often, the Board of Directors spend a bulk of its time on quarterly reports, audit reviews, budgets, and compliance. However, with the change in the business environment, there is a greater need to redirect the Board’s attention on matters crucial to the future prosperity and direction of the business. One of this is Strategy Development. Achieving this requires the development of a dynamic Board with a long-term mindset capable of creating forward-looking agenda and activities that get sufficient time over a 12-month period.
The Changing Board Agenda
The Board Agenda is changing. It is becoming more dynamic and it has increasingly highlighted forward-looking activities. Long-term economic, technological, and demographic trends are radically shaping the global economy. The second Industrial Revolution now requires the Board to shift focus. The Board is now challenged to focus on matters crucial to achieving Operational Excellence and the future direction of the organization. Directors must devote more time to strategic and forward-looking aspects of the agenda. They must cease seeing the job as supporting the CEO, but instead, be strategic in making sure long-term goals are formulated and met.
Having a forward-looking Board has now become every organization’s imperative. However, this can only be achieved if there is a solid foundation that is anchored on three guiding principles. Organizations must have the right Board Member, a clear definition of the Board’s role, and greater time commitment from members. At this time when a long-term mindset has come to a fore, these have become essential.
Developing a Long-term Mindset: The 4 Essential Tactics
“Strategy without tactics is the slowest route to victory. Tactics without strategy are the noise before defeat.” – Sun Tzu
Organizations can undertake 4 essential tactics to encourage the Board to have a long-term mindset.
- Study the External Landscape. This is the starting point of creating a forward-looking mindset. The primary purpose of this tactic is to expose the Board to new technologies and market developments relevant to the company’s strategy. Studying the external landscape will challenge management with critical questions.
- Participate in Strategy Development. This tactic focuses on making strategy a vital part of the Board’s DNA. Participating in the Strategy Planning process will strengthen the Board’s role in co-creating and ultimately agreeing on the company’s strategy.
- Focus on Long-term Talent Development. The third tactic, this tactic focuses on unleashing the full power of the people. It will effectively reallocate skills and experience to a business with more potential. To achieve its expected result, the key is the Board must agree with management on a sensible approach to reviewing executive talent.
- Identify Existential Risks. This is the tactic that focused on the Risk Management of existential risks. Because of accelerating technological progress, existential risks have become a recent phenomenon. Existential risks have a great detrimental impact not only on business but also on mankind. The Boards have the duty to ensure that management teams pursue bottom-up investigations, identify key risk areas, and act on the results.
The 4 tactics are essentially effective in creating long-term mindsets. When this is achieved, Board Excellence is never far behind.
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Lean Management plays a significant role in putting in place processes, capabilities, and tools to improve how businesses operate. But, the Digital Age has increased both the opportunities for businesses who know how to react and the difficulty of getting it right.
Tasks performed by humans are now more complex be it accessing information in multiple formats from multiple sources or responding to changing market and customer dynamics at an ever-increasing speed. As an increasing number of tasks become automated or taken over by cognitive-intelligence capabilities, companies need to learn from lean management. Like a sprinter who needs all her muscles to be finely tuned and working in concert to reach top speeds, fast-moving institutions must have a system to continually synchronize strategies, activities, performance, and health.
Many organizations understand the need to change how they work and have embarked on numerous initiatives, yet few have been able to get beyond isolated success cases or marginal benefits. Most companies recognize the need for a Next-gen Operating Model to drive their business forward their Digital Transformation initiatives. But, how they develop it makes a big difference.
The Next-gen Operating Model
There are 4 core pillars of a Next-gen Operating Model. Putting these in place will ensure its successful implementation.
- Autonomous, Cross-functional Teams. The first pillar is focused on empowering the team to own products, services, or journeys. Having autonomous, cross-functional teams, organizations can become nimble in building skills across their teams. They make anchor hires for key roles, set up rotational and train the trainer programs, and commit to ongoing capability building and training for key roles.
- Flexible, Modular Platform. The second pillar is focused o supporting a faster deployment of products and services. Having Flexible, Modular Platforms will enable technology teams to better collaborate with business leaders in assessing which systems need to move faster.
- Connected Management System. The third pillar focuses on driving a culture of continuous improvement that cemented on customer needs. A Connected Management System will ensure that Management systems are evolving to create feedback mechanisms with and between various operations and teams.
- Agile, Customer-centric Culture. The fourth pillar is focused on speed and execution over perfection. Having an Agile, Customer-centric Culture is critical to success. It leads the change from the top and builds new ways of working across organizational boundaries. When functions and teams collaborate, effective time to market to reduced as well as operational risk.
The path to building up the Next-gen Operating Model follows well-defined approaches to guide organizations. These approaches will be every organization’s guide to operating model transformation during the first 12 months.
Following the 4 Critical Approaches to Operating Model Transformation
The 4 critical Approaches to Operating Model Transformation works well when there is a broad and top-down organizational mandate for change. Before anything else, organizations must make sure that the change mandate is in place so that the entire organization is aligned with the proposed change.
One of the 4 Critical Approaches is the Innovation Lab. The Innovation Lab is a dedicated unit set up to be entirely separate from the historical culture, decision-making bureaucracy, and technical infrastructure of the main business. It hatches new business models in an informal setting. It is best used when there is a need to move very quickly in response to market pressures.
Mastering these various approaches will enable organizations to better go through the Operating Model Transformation in the most effective way to achieve Operational Excellence.
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Business Process Reengineering (BPR) is a practice of rethinking and redesigning the way work is done to better support an organization’s mission and reduce costs. In all too many companies, reengineering has been not only a great success but also a great failure. After months, even years, of a careful redesign, these companies achieve dramatic improvements in individual processes only to watch overall results decline.
The promise of reengineering is not empty. It can actually deliver revolutionary process improvements, and major reengineering efforts are being conducted around the world. It can even lead organizations to achieve a successful Business Transformation.
Yet, companies cannot convey these results to the bottom line.
The Strategy that is BPR
Business Process Reengineering (BPR) is a Business Management strategy focused on the analysis and design of workflows and business processes within an organization. Often, companies direct Process Reengineering initiative on 2 key areas of business. One is in the use of modern technology to enhance data dissemination and the decision- making process. The second key area is the alteration of functional organizations to form functional teams.
As a strategy, Business Process Reengineering can greatly impact on the organization. It can help organizations fundamentally rethink how work must be done to improve customer service, cut operational costs, and become world-class competitors. It can help companies radically restructure their organizations by focusing on the ground-up design of their business process. BPR, as a strategy, can direct organizations to achieve Operational Excellence.
In the process, there are 2 dimensions that are critical in translating these short-term narrow-focus process improvements into long-term profits.
Understanding the 2 Dimensions of BPR
- Breadth. Breadth is a dimension of BPR that focuses on the range of activity types within a process. It includes the identification of activities includes in the process being redesigned that are critical for value creation in the overall business unit. Breadth can reduce overall business unit costs and can even reveal unexpected opportunities for a redesign.
- Depth. This is the dimension of BPR that focuses on the abstraction levels of process logic within a process. It refers to how many and how much of the depth levers change as a result of reengineering. Depth provides the most dramatic process cost reduction and avoids the classic reengineering pitfall of focusing on fixing the status quo.
Having a good understanding of the 2 Dimensions of BPR will open a range of opportunities for organizations to achieve innovative performance and enhancements.
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Management processes–everything from how a company manages risk to how it gets supplies for factories to how it manages and develops people–are some of the primary ways that global companies impose order and consistency on a diverse set of global operations. Companies believe that processes can help share knowledge across divisions and regions to achieve operational excellence. Likewise, seamless delivery and service processes can be central to meeting customer expectations.
In a world where the pace of competition is increasing faster than ever, best-in-class processes can create competitive advantages when it comes to innovation and risk management. However, researches have shown that companies are particularly poor at managing processes. Often there are just too many processes. Worst, executives often do not know where to begin; a Leadership Development dilemma.
The Pitfalls of Organizations
Global organizations are particularly poor at managing processes. Processes are considered one of the 3 weakest aspects of organizations and strengthening them is crucial.
Based on a McKinsey survey of executives, executives do not know what their processes are. Inasmuch as there are just too many processes, these processes do not reflect new customer needs. In fact, there exists a resistance to change that can be damaging to an organization.
Organizations have to understand that processes can go wrong on a global scale and it can bring in a lot of challenges to an organization.
The 3 Core Challenges to Global Organizations
Organizations are faced with 3 core challenges when dealing with processes and transforming them to a global scale.
- A Plethora of Processes. When there are a plethora of processes, there are just too many processes and too little value. This happens when executives are unable to differentiate between processes that are essential to creating global value and those that are inessential but offer benefits if these are consistent. Executives also fail to differentiate between processes that are crucial to customers or those that create value and those that do not. A plethora of processes is also created when the operation is in various locations or as a result of M&A activity.
- Overstandardization. How do you know that overstandardization exists? It is when processes are so rigid that they are slow to respond to new growth. As a result, there is a dramatic decrease in local responsiveness. This core challenge often arises because there is just too much concern about maximizing control and reducing risk.
- Resistance to Change. This is the third core challenge faced when change is introduced and there is resistance. Resistance to change often occurs when there is difficulty in changing customer-facing processes until the organization is faced with customer backlash. Executives often fail to understand customers’ preference for standard global service. The thinking is often directed towards country-specific variations which are not often what customers like.
Overcoming the 3 core challenges can be done. Organizations just need to take on a 3-phase approach that will ensure that all global processes are enabling performance. These are Prioritize, Optimize, and Implement. A 3-phase approach is an effective tool towards approaching Global Process Optimization in a strategic manner where value is maximized at minimal cost and complexity.
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In a recent update to Flevy, the documents marketplace has allowed select contributors to offer complimentary documents. However, it takes some digging to find these free offers. Here, we present 5:
Introduction to Strategy
What is Strategy? This 20-slide presentation provides an introduction to strategy, separating out the concepts of Corporate Strategy vs. Business (Unit) Strategy.
Introduction to Operational Excellence
This 48-slide presentation provides a high-level introduction to Operational Excellence. It explains the four building blocks: Strategy Deployment, Performance Management, Process Excellence, and High Performance Work Teams.
A Practical Framework Approach to Change
This presentation presents a flavour of some of the more necessary change components and associated tools & techniques that will require consideration during any change initiative.
Lean Thinking 101
This 32-page presentation that explains the Lean management philosophy, based on the Toyota Production System (TPS).
Delta Model Primer
The Delta Model is a growth strategy framework developed by MIT/Sloan professors to help managers in the articulation and implementation of effective corporate and business strategies.
This week, LearnPPT added a new section to their site: Operational Excellence.
What exactly is Operational Excellence?
The page is currently divided into 4 main sections:
- Lean Management (or Lean Enterprise)
- Strategic Planning & Deployment
- Quality Management & Assurance
- Six Sigma
Questions, thoughts, concerns? Go to my site (learnppt.com) and shoot me an email.
For other business frameworks, visit our library of consulting-quality business frameworks and methodologies here: http://learnppt.com/powerpoint/frameworks/. These diagrams were professionally designed by management consultants. Give your presentations the look and feel of a final product made by McKinsey, BCG, Bain, Booz Allen, Deloitte, or any of the top consulting firms.
Here is a list of 4 PowerPoint documents that convey over 100+ different business frameworks and management models. They cover just about every business concept you can imagine. At the bottom, I’ve listed all the frameworks included in each document.
23 Corporate Strategy and Management Models
30 Business Performance Improvement Models
28 Organization, Change, and HR Models
28 IT Management Models
Flevy’s full collection of PowerPoint templates can be found here: https://flevy.com/function/powerpoint-templates-ppt
* * * *
CONTENTS OF CORPORATE STRATEGY AND MANAGEMENT MODELS
1. 3 C’s
2. ADL Matrix
3. Acquisitions Integration Approaches
4. Blue Ocean Strategy
5. Capability Maturity Model
6. GE-McKinsey Matrix
7. OODA Loop
8. Profit Pools
9. Resource-based View of Firm
10. Scenario Planning
11. Strategy Maps
12. Application Portfolio Optimization
13. Value Stream Mapping
14. Six Thinking Hats
15. 4 P’s Marketing Mix
16. 7 P’s Marketing Mix
17. 6 Change Approaches
18. Cultural Dimensions Theory
19. Six Sigma Quality Management
20. Change Management Iceberg
21. Organizational Learning
22. Performance Prism
23. Crossing the Chasm
CONTENTS OF BUSINESS IMPROVEMENT MODELS
1. ISO 9001 Quality Management Model
2. Baldrige Performance Excellence Model
3. EFQM Business Excellence Model
4. Balanced Scorecard
5. Hoshin Kanri Model
6. Benchmarking Model
7. Business Process Re-engineering Model
8. Shingo Model for Lean Transformation
9. Lean Management Model (TPS)
10. Lean Leadership & Kaizen Model
11. Lean Maturity Model
12. Value Stream Mapping
13. Eight Types of Waste
14. Lean Levers
15. Gemba Framework
16. Cause & Effect Diagram ( Fishbone Diagram, Ishikawa Diagram)
17. 5S Principles
18. Plan-Do-Check-Act Model
19. PDCA Problem Solving Process
20. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) Pillars
21. DMAIC Process Improvement Model
22. Law of 10
23. Training Within Industry (TWI)
24. A3 Storyboard Template
25. PACE Prioritization Matrix
26. Payoff Evaluation Matrix
27. Cost of Quality Model
28. SERVQUAL Model
29. ADKAR Model
30. Kotter Change Management Model
CONTENTS OF ORGANIZATION, CHANGE, HR MODELS
1. IMPA HR Competency Model
2. NAPA Competency Model for HR Professionals
3. Ulrich’s HR Competency Model
4. Ulrich’s Matrix on the Four Roles of HR
5. The Harvard Model of Strategic HRM
6. AHRI Model of Excellence
7. People Capability Maturity Model (PCMM)
8. SHRM Elements for HR Success
9. Ulrich’s Stages of Employee Connection to the Organization
10. Talent Management Framework
11. Novations Four Stages of Contribution Model
12. Ulrich’s Five Rules for Leadership (Leadership Code)
13. ASTD Competency Model
14. Senge’s Learning Organization Model
15. High-Impact Learning Organization Model
16. Tuckman’s Model of Team Development Stages
17. The Emotional Competence Framework
18. Bridges’ Transition Model
19. Lewin’s Three Stage Change Model
20. The McKinsey 7S Model
21. ADKAR Change Model
22. Kotter’s Change Management Model
23. Cause & Effect Diagram for HR Systems
24. ISO 9001 Quality Management Model
25. Baldrige Performance Excellence Model
26. EFQM Business Excellence Model
27. Kaplan & Norton Balance Scorecard
28. Xerox Benchmarking Model
CONTENTS OF IT FRAMEWORKS
1. IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) Model
2. ISO/IEC 20000 IT Service Management Model
3. ISO/IEC 27000 Information Security Management Systems Model
4. COBIT 5 Model
5. Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI)
6. People Capability Maturity Model (PCMM)
7. ISO/IEC 15504 (SPICE)
8. Organizational Project Management Maturity Model (OPM3)
9. Portfolio, Programme, Project Management Maturity Model (P3M3)
10. Portfolio, Programme, Project Office Model (P3O)
11. PRINCE2 Project Management Model
12. IDEAL Model
13. Waterfall Model
14. Agile Model
15. Scrum Model
16. Enterprise Data Architecture Models
17. COPC-2000 Model
18. Lean Levers for IT Outsourcing
19. Cause & Effect Diagram ( Fishbone Diagram, Ishikawa Diagram)
20. DMAIC Process Improvement Model (Six Sigma)
21. ISO 9001 Quality Management Model
22. Malcolm Baldrige Performance Excellence Model
23. EFQM Business Excellence Model
24. Balanced Scorecard
25. Xerox Benchmarking Model
26. SERVQUAL Model
27. ADKAR Model
28. Kotter Change Management Model